A Majority of India’s Poor Women May Miss COVID-19 PMJDY Cash Transfers

EPoD India at Krea University

EPoD India at KREA, together with Yale University, has combined government reports of PMJDY ownership and data from the nationally representative 2018 Financial Inclusion Insights (FII) Survey to:
– Identify what fraction of food-insecure, poor women are likely excluded from PMJDY-based cash transfers
– Assess the scope for food transfers to fill the coverage gaps left by cash transfers


We find that more than half of poor women are likely excluded from the cash transfer program. Furthermore, one in five poor women live in households that lack ration cards, which typically grant access to the central food ration system.
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  • Gender-based issues
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